# The Calculator

# Description

## Introduction

This calculator estimates a runner's VO_{2} max based on a recent race result.

## Benefits

The VDOT formula (see below) that this calculator makes use of is based on real performances of runners. As such, all components of a runner's fitness, including lactate threshold, running economy, endurance, and psychological factors, are baked into the formula.

## Difficulties

The VDOT formula was derived using performances from elite runners, so it may not necessarily translate as well for other standards of runners.

As mentioned above, all components of a runner's fitness are automatically included in the formula. Although this may be considered a strength of the formula for those interested in VO_{2} max as a performance indicator, it is less useful as an estimate of a runner's true VO_{2} max value. This will be most noticeable amongst athletes for whom running is not their main sport. E.g. an elite-level swimmer or cyclist is unlikely to be able to achieve a running performance that reveals their true VO_{2} max.

## Using the calculator

To use the calculator simply choose or specify a race distance and enter a recently-achieved time.

Note that while you can use any distance to generate an estimate, that estimate is likely to be more accurate for distances of 1500 metres or more.

# How It Works

## VO_{2} Max

The calculator is based on the Daniels and Gilbert formula for estimating VO_{2} Max.

It may be more properly described as a VDOT calculator, since this is the term referred to by Daniels.

The VDOT formula is as follows:

```
VO
```

_{2} Max = (−4.60 + 0.182258 × S + 0.000104 × S^{2})/(0.8 + 0.1894393 × e^{(-0.012778 × T)} + 0.2989558 × e^{(−0.1932605 × T)})

where:

`S`

is speed in metres per second

`T`

is time in seconds